October 22, 2021


Safe healthy food

Distinctive Venezuela swapped PDVSA oil for food stuff, then punished the dealmakers

6 min read

CARACAS, Aug 24 (Reuters) – With U.S. sanctions spooking critical oil customers and depriving its govt of hard cash, Venezuela previous 12 months inked a deal with a very little-known neighborhood corporation to swap crude for foods, Reuters has uncovered.

That arrangement noticed state oil corporation PDVSA, commencing in December 2020, supply extra than 6 million barrels of crude well worth almost $260 million to a business named Supraquimic C.A., which was to source food stuff for a govt method. But the arrangement collapsed when PDVSA accused two executives linked to Supraquimic with embezzling the proceeds, in accordance to legal expenses filed by Venezuelan prosecutors in late March.

This account of the deal and its demise is based mostly on dozens of web pages of inner PDVSA paperwork considered by Reuters, courtroom filings by prosecutors, and interviews with 3 men and women common with the condition. It provides a exceptional glimpse inside one particular of the maneuvers that Venezuela’s socialist federal government devised to continue on exporting crude – the lifeblood of its beleaguered economic system – regardless of U.S. sanctions.

Neither PDVSA nor Venezuela’s oil or details ministries or chief prosecutor’s business responded to requests for remark. President Nicolas Maduro has termed U.S. sanctions illegal and blames Washington and his domestic political opponents for the country’s woes.

The Supraquimic offer is also the most up-to-date illustration of how Venezuela, lower off from the worldwide money process and brief of challenging forex right after several years of financial decrease, has turned to bartering its crude. It has earlier used oil to shell out down debts, acquire gasoline and diesel, and buy water vehicles. Maduro has even proposed employing oil to invest in coronavirus vaccines.

Just as vital, the Supraquimic offer provided PDVSA with a new purchaser. Because the United States blacklisted PDVSA in early 2019, numerous big clients have stopped getting. In their spot, a collection of mysterious, not long ago-fashioned organizations with no previous oil encounter have materialized to acquire PDVSA’s oil, like beforehand-not known Mexican and Russian companies.

Buys by these new gamers have authorized Venezuela’s crude exports to climb sharply this calendar year, interior PDVSA transport documents and Refinitiv Eikon vessel tracking details present.

“It is amazing how Venezuela has mutated to prevail over problems coming from sanctions, which is making Venezuela’s oil trade increasingly opaque,” explained Francisco Monaldi, a fellow in Latin American Energy Policy at Rice University’s Baker Institute.

It is really all portion of a cat-and-mouse game that Caracas is taking part in with U.S. authorities to hold advertising its most important commodity. Washington has barred American corporations from buying Venezuelan oil and has threatened to punish firms based mostly any where in the world that do enterprise with PDVSA.

“Maduro and his supporters have attempted to exploit U.S. policy in assistance of humanitarian similar transactions by disguising their makes an attempt to squeeze financial gain from Venezuelan assets as oil-for-meals strategies,” a Condition Office spokesperson claimed in a assertion.

“We do not preview our sanctions, but of class evasion strategies may possibly show susceptible to sanctions,” the statement read.

The Supraquimic offer also demonstrates potential perils for providers undertaking enterprise with Venezuela’s govt, which has sparred regularly with the personal sector even as the Socialist Get together has courted their financial investment to increase the financial state.

In 2015, for instance, with Venezuela rocked by shortages of consumer merchandise, authorities detained executives of a pharmacy chain and personnel at a top foods enterprise on accusations of hoarding supply to destabilize the economic climate, which they denied. Venezuela’s industrialists have blamed Maduro’s socialist economic insurance policies for the nation’s woes.

“The primary danger to performing business with the government is not that you happen to be going to reduce funds or that your belongings are going to be expropriated. It is that you’re likely to finish up in jail,” claimed Jose Ignacio Hernandez, a specialist in Venezuelan administrative regulation and financial regulation at the Harvard Kennedy College and the previous authorized representative for Venezuela’s opposition.

Venezuela’s Info Ministry did not reply to a ask for for a reaction to Hernandez’s assertions.

This sort of tensions were being on display once again on March 30, when Venezuelan authorities issued arrest warrants for Supraquimic President Oscar Garcia as effectively as Jose Llamozas, who owns corporations that bought foods to Supraquimic. The two were billed with embezzlement, collusion between a general public official and a contractor, and illicit affiliation, according to the prosecutor’s ask for to a choose for the warrant.

Garcia, whose whereabouts are unfamiliar, did not respond to phone phone calls, email messages and messages to social media profiles searching for comment. Reuters could not decide no matter if Garcia was ever arrested or if he has lawful illustration.

Llamozas, who was jailed for a few months just before remaining unveiled on July 2 pending a achievable trial, did not answer to messages despatched to telephone figures and electronic mail addresses outlined for his businesses. Llamozas’ protection counsel did not respond to requests for remark.

In Venezuela, prosecutors initially demand a suspect and then investigate further just before deciding regardless of whether or not to recommend to a choose that the situation go ahead, in accordance to Jose Vicente Haro, a legislation professor at the Central University of Venezuela.


The arrangement among PDVSA and Supraquimic began with a request from Venezuela’s Foodstuff Ministry to ensure source for its CLAP packing containers, a meals handout plan that numerous family members count on to survive, in accordance to a duplicate of a contract among the two companies and the ministry which was considered by Reuters.

That agreement, dated April 2020 and described as a “strategic alliance,” stipulated that Supraquimic would receive up to 5 million barrels of crude per thirty day period from PDVSA in trade for giving meals products of equal value to the Foods Ministry. Supraquimic, in switch, would be accountable for providing the oil.

Supraquimic was launched by Garcia in Caracas in 2015, according to governing administration industrial registry information. In overall, the organization received from PDVSA six cargoes concerning Dec. 28, 2020 and Feb. 10, 2021, totaling 6.2 million barrels valued at $257.8 million, in accordance to inner oil firm invoices viewed by Reuters. That was in line with sector price ranges at the time. All the shipments established sail in tankers bound for Asia, in accordance to the PDVSA invoices and shipping and delivery files, and Refinitiv Eikon information.

Reuters could not figure out how considerably food, if any, Supraquimic delivered to the CLAP application. But according to a March 4 letter published to business officials by Antonio Perez Suarez, PDVSA’s vice president for supply and investing, it was not enough to satisfy the agreement.

“You have not honored your payment commitments in accordance to the contractual phrases recognized and accepted by your company,” Perez Suarez wrote in that letter, considered by Reuters.

Supraquimic does not appear to be a foodstuff company. It procured solutions from Venezuelan organizations including Alimentos Santa Lucia and Agroinsumos El Granero, each owned by Llamozas, according to a person familiar with the offer.

Llamozas’ companies agreed to sell foods objects totaling $80 million to Supraquimic in installments, the human being explained. But immediately after obtaining payment for delivery of an initial $8 million truly worth of products, Llamozas’ corporations stopped shipping and delivery since they received no more money, leaving Supraquimic unable to satisfy its obligations to the governing administration, the person claimed.

On March 30, Llamozas was summoned to PDVSA’s workplaces, according to the human being. He was arrested in the oil company’s parking ton, in accordance to the law enforcement arrest report.

Though Llamozas was in jail, Maduro identified a different resource of assist to feed some of the approximated 7 million Venezuelans experiencing meals insecurity in what was after a person of Latin America’s wealthiest nations. The U.N. Environment Food items Programme in April attained a offer with his administration to provide regular rations to university young children.

Reporting by Luc Cohen in Caracas and Marianna Parraga in Mexico Metropolis
Supplemental reporting by Mayela Armas in Caracas and Tibisay Romero in Valencia, Venezuela
Editing by Marla Dickerson

Our Standards: The Thomson Reuters Trust Concepts.

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